Here we go: Found on a volcanic planet Nocturne, whose civilization lies in smithery, Vulkan grew to be a master of the forge. When found by the Emperor, he challenged him to a contest. Nothing much on the first two contest, but on the third, they're supposed to forge a weapon, and with it, kill the largest predator they can find, a fiery Salamander. Vulkan killed the largest one he can find, but on his way, he was caught in a fissure. Trapped between letting go his catch or fall to his death, Vulkan was too stubborn to let go of his prize, but try as he might, he can't lift both himself and the catch. Later the Emperor arrived, carrying his Salamander and it was obvious to Vulkan that his catch was far larger than his. However, seeing Vulkan's predicament, the Emperor throw away his catch, using it as a bridge through the lava river, and then rescued the Primarch, AND his catch, leaving his Salamander to melt on the lava. Upon return, technically, the Emperor lost, but Vulkan accede and remarked any man who would choose life over pride is worthy of service. Ever since then, the Space Marine Legion led by Vulkan was named Salamanders, in honor of that event. After the Horus Heresy, Vulkan vanished. But not before leaving behind 9 artifacts of his creation, spread across the Universe. They say when his chapter found all relics, he will return.
The Salamanders are a fiery chapter. Heavily influenced by the local fire based religion in their home planet of Nocturne called the Promethean cult. By Space Marine standard, due to some genetical mutation on their geneseed, they're not a very fast warriors (though still relatively fast compared to normal human). So they make use of many heavy weapons: heavy bolter, multi melta, terminator armor, other tanking units but few rapid assault capability. The Land raider Redeemer, with two firestorm cannon on sponson, and a assault cannon on hull, is credited to this chapter.